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TUBA-TUBA PLANTATION GUIDE

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GROWING TUBA-TUBA

Post  Admin on Sat Aug 30, 2008 10:54 am

Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) Locally known as tuba-tuba is one of the most promising sources of bio-fuel today. About 30 percent of the tuba-tuba nut is composed of oil. This oil can be easily processed into fuel that can replace or mixed with petroleum based diesel to save on imported oil and most importantly increase local employment and help the economy to grow.

The tuba-tuba has been planted for quite sometime but it was mainly as fencing. It is also known in the Tagalog region as “tubing bakod” and”sambo” while the Ilocanos call it “tawa-tawa” while it is called “tagumbao” in Nueva Ecija and Pangasinan. In the Cagayan Valley, it is known as “kalunay” and “kasla” among the Ilonggos. In the Lanao region, it is known as “tangantangan”.

Jatropha is a drought-resistant perennial shrub with an economic life of up to 35 years and can even extend up to 50 years. The shrub has a smooth, gray bark which exudes a whitish color, watery latex when cut. The size of the leaves ranges from 6-15 cm in length and width. It sheds leaves in the dry season and rejuvenates during the rainy season.

The flowers of jatropha are formed terminally with the female flowers usually slightly larger. It has two flowering peaks which occur during the wet season. It is pollinated by insects and each inflorescence yields fruits. Jatropha starts producing seeds within 14 months from planting but reaches its maximum productivity level after 4 to 5 years.

The seed matures when the capsules changes from green to yellow about 2-3 months after flowering.

PROPAGATION

Seeds

Jatropha grows fast with little or no maintenance and can reach a height of 3 to 8 meters. It can be planted or propagated through seed or cuttings. Seeds intended for seeding production must be soaked in water for eight hours before sowing. This should be done to soften the seed coat to facilitate faster germination. Slow seeds in soil mixed with sand. The first shoot is expected after six days. Water the plants everyday. Seedlings are ready for transplanting in the field after two months. Planting distance can be 3m x 2m depending on the soil fertility.

Stem cutting

Another method of propagating jatropha is through stem cutting. It is important to obtain cuttings from eight month-old mature plant. Use a sharp bolo to cut the stem about 30 cm long from the base of the stem. Matured cuttings was found to be the best source of planting materials that can easily produce seeds at least 6 months earlier than from seeds.

Tissue culture

Jatropha can also be propagated through tissue culture. This method is a laboratory – based which uses artificial and sterilized propagation media. Tissues from various plants can be used in this procedure which allows asexual propagation of plants with desired characteristics. In order to obtain a higher rate of survival of planting materials, it is important to establish a nursery that is accessible to the plantation that has a source of water.

Cultivation

Jatropha grows on all types of soil (ordinary soil, sandy, gravely or rocky soil) and adapts easily to different climates. It can survive a long period of drought by shedding most of it leaves. It can stand up to two years without rainfall. The tree also has a short gestation period, it will bear a several fruits starting at about 8 months old and be fully fruit bearing between one to two years. It can be adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content but the use of organic fertilizer would result to higher yield. It grows best when planted at the onset of the rainy season. The distance of planting for commercial production is 2m x 2m apart but for hedges, the recommended distance of planting is 1m x 1m. The trees can also be planted on coconut plantations – intercropping the tuba-tuba under the coconut trees provided that it receives sufficient sunlight.

The plants must be watered up to two weeks after transplanting to ensure its continued growth. In order to obtain higher yield and better quality seeds, fertilizer application is recommended. To prevent wilting, plants must be watered after applying fertilizer. For rainfed areas, fertilizer can be applied during rainy season. Apply fertilizer at a depth of 5-10cm and a distance of 15-20cm away from the plant. Organic fertilizer is highly recommended for jatropha production.

Harvesting and Processing

Seeds can usually be harvested one year after planting. It is best to harvest the fruits when these have turned yellow to dark brown. Approximately two to three months after flowering, seeds should be collected when the capsules have split open. Seeds should not be dried in direct sunlight because it will affect its germination. One kilogram of jatropha seeds consists of 600 to 1,600 pieces of seeds. The potential yield of jatropha per hectare is 6 tons to as high as 1o tons depending on the site, climate and management of the plants. Seeds are de-hulled by using wooden plank and then winnowed to separate the hulls from the seeds. Before storing, the seeds must be air dried to 5% - 7% moisture content and stored in air-tight containers. Seeds can be stored up to one year at room temperature.

Seeds for replanting can be gathered when fruits are already yellow to dark brown. Dry, black seeds can be used for oil extraction.

TECHNOLOGY

Oil Production

The extraction process involves the use of machines to extract the vegetable oil from the seed. This produces Jatropha crude oil, with hull and press cake as by products. Laboratory results show that around 2.9 kg of seeds produces one liter of crude oil.

Refining of Oil Into Biodiesel

On the other hand, the transesterification of crude oil is a process which uses chemicals like methanol and catalysts such as caustic soda. This produces Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) as its main product and glycerine as its co-product. 10 liters of crude oil can produce 8.5 liters of JME.

The results of testing made on Philippine Forest’s JME show the great potential of
Jatropha oil as a source of biodiesel. Laboratory tets showed that it passes the American (ASTM D6751) and European (EN 14214) standards for biodiesel. Moreover, analysis of Jatropha crude oil shows that it is comparable to bunker fuel.

Uses

Jatropha is a potential source of biodiesel for local production to replace a portion of the country’s dependence on imported oil. The extracted oil from jatropha can be used in diesel engines (in lover blends with diesel fuel). Blending of fuel can be done up to 20 percent (B20) without engine modification. Using jatropha as biodiesel reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Jatropha can be grown on marginal and degraded land, thus, leaving prime agricultural lands for food crops, and at the same time restoring the fertility of these marginal lands.

Aside from using the seed oil as biodiesel, the extracted oil can also be used in making soap. The leaves can be used for fumigating houses to expel bugs. The root extract can be used as yellow dye while the bark extract as blue dye. The seeds when pounded can be used for tanning while the roots, flowers and latex of the tuba-tuba plant are said to have medicinal properties.

With the ever increasing interest in biodiesel fuels, we may be one day get used to the idea that fuel for our vehicles was harvested from local plantations instead of using imported oil.

Economics

Initial investment for commercial plantation (2m x 2m) for one hectare ranges from
Php31,009 to Php52,770. the return of investment ranges from 0.90 – 1.8 while payback period is between 2nd to 3rd year. Potential yield ranges from 6 tons to as high as 10 tons per hectare depending on the site, climate and tending operations.

For more information, contact:

Agriculture and Fisheries Information Service
Department of Agriculture
Elliptical Road, Diliman, Quezon City 1100
Tel. No.: 9288741 local 2156
Webpage: www.da.gov.ph

Philippine Forest Corporation
Old Namria Building, Lawton Avenue
Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City
Tel.: 8893573
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PLANT TUBA-TUBA

Post  Admin on Sat Aug 30, 2008 9:45 am

Want to be a millionaire?

Stop wasting precious money on lotto or get-rich-quick schemes such as those being peddled by swindlers through text messaging. Why not try planting tuba-tuba?

According to Bukidnon Rep Juan Miguel Zubiri, tuba-tuba, whose scientific name is jathropa curcas, is a “fast-growing small tree whose fruit actually a nut, can be processed into cooking oil or car fuel.”

“Planting tuba-tuba can be a very profitable proposition,” Zubiri, who is promoting the use of bio-fuels, said yesterday.

“Three kilos of tuba-tuba seeds or nuts could produce a liter of bio-diesel. Tuba-tuba bio-diesel readily mixes with diesel fuel and can run any diesel engine without modification,” he said.

He said the small tree can bear fruit within three years from planting and can produce as much as 12 tons of nuts a year.

He cited a study made by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), which showed that a grower can earn P200,000 per hectare per year from the sale, and processing of tuba-tuba nuts.

Zubiri said growing tuba-tuba does not require much investment.

He said the DENR, under Administrative Order 2005-25, is making available up to four million hectares of denuded forestland for planting to tuba-tuba and other tree species.

Individuals and groups can apply to till up to a maximum of 50 hectares each, he said.

He added that the DENR will even provide the initial saplings for applicants to plant.

Growing Tuba-Tuba

The Tuba-tuba Plant (Jatropha curcas) also known as Tubang Bakod in Tagalog, Physic Nut in English or interchangeably tuba-tuba or Jatropha. The latest craze to hit the agri-business in the Philippines. Primarily for its oil to produce biodiesel. The Tuba-tuba has been planted in the Philippines for quite some time but it was used mainly as fencing since it animals do not eat the leaves -even the insatiable goat would not eat the leaves. The ever increasing price of petroleum prices has triggered interest on the Tuba-tuba or Jatropha.

Jatropha is a drought resistant perennial shrub or small tree that produces seeds up to 35 years but can live up to 50 years. Jatropha grows fast with little or no maintenance and reaches the average height of about 3 meters but it can grow up to 8 meters.

Tuba-tuba is one of the most promising sources of bio-fuel today. About 30% of the Tuba-tuba nut is composed of oil. 3 kilos of Jatropha seeds can produce about 1 liter of crude Jatropha oil that can then be processed into biodiesel fuel. This oil can be easily be processed into fuel that can replace or mixed with petroleum based diesel to save on imported oil and most importantly increase local employment and help the economy to grow.

Since the Jatropha plant’s average height is about three meters, harvesting is easy and the plant can be grown practically anywhere (ordinary soil, sandy, gravely or rocky soil) and adapts easily to different climates. Jatropha is resistant to droughts -it can stand up to two years without rainfall. The tree also has a short gestation period, it will bear a several fruits starting at about 6 months old and be fully fruit bearing between one to two years.

Other Benefits of Planting Tuba-tuba/Jatropha:
Aside from using the seed oil as biodiesel, the extracted oil can also be used in making soap.
The Jatropha/Tuba-tuba leaves can be used for fumigating houses to expel bugs.
The root extract of Jatropha plant can be used as yellow die while the bark extract as blue dye. While the seeds when pounded can be used for tanning.
The roots, flowers and latex of the Jatropha plant are said to have medicinal properties.
Planting Jatropha reduces soil degradation, erosion and deforestation of the countryside.
Planting the Tuba-Tuba:

Irrigated land can be planted with up to 2,500 Jatropha plants per hectare - a spacing or two meters by two meters. But on poor soil, and land dependent only on rainfall, the plants should be spaced further apart. A month or two before the start of rainy season is a good time to plant. Jatropha seeds can directly be planted or 2 to 3 month old seedlings from nurseries can be used. Jatropha seedling or cutting is planted then covered on an up-hill manner to avoid erosion. The plants are watered for two weeks after transplanting. Seeds can usually be harvested 1 year after planting. Potential yield ranges from 1.25 to 12.5 tons of seeds per hectare.

Process of Oil Extraction:

Oil is easily extracted from the Tuba-tuba nut by the use of a presser-expeller. This engine driven machine is simple enough to be operated in provinces by village folks. The yield is about 1 liter of oil for every 3 kilos of seeds. The oil is then refined to produce biodiesel.

It has been estimated that for a processing plant (presser-expeller) to be economically viable and have continuous supply of the Jatropha nut, 5,000 hectares of land have to be planted with Jatropha trees. The trees can also be planted on coconut plantations - intercropping the Tuba-tuba/ Jatropha under the coconut trees. With proper weeding, pruning, ploughing and fertilization, up to 20 kilos of seeds can be harvested per tree - up to 0.40 metric tons per hectare for non-irrigated land and up to 2.5 metric tons of seed per year if the land is irrigated. This is a boost for coconut farmers and land owners alike.

In the Philippines, planting of Jatropha or Tuba-tuba is on high gear, more so in Visayas & Mindanao but it can be planted anywhere. The Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) is actively promoting its planting to coconut farmers.

With the ever increasing interest in biodiesel fuels, we may one day get used to the idea that fuel for our vehicles was harvested from local plantations instead of using imported oil from the Middle East.

For more information, contact:

Philippine Coconut Authority
Elliptical Road, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
Tel: (0632) 928-8741 to 45
Email: pca_cpo@yahoo.com.ph
Web: www.pca.da.gov.ph

source: pcaagribiz.da.gov.ph, herbal-medicine.philsite.net


Last edited by Admin on Thu Apr 05, 2012 2:43 pm; edited 1 time in total
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TUBA-TUBA PLANTATION GUIDE

Post  Admin on Sat Aug 30, 2008 9:38 am

Jatropha curcas L. is found throughout the Philippines. In fact, different regions have their own common name for Jatropha. In the Tagalog region it is known as tubing-bakod, tuba and sambo. Among the Bicolanos, it is called tuba and tuba-tuba; in Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija, it is called tagumbao; tawa-tawa in Ilocos and kalunay in Cagayan Valley. In the Visayas and Mindanao, it is also known as tuba-tuba; kasla among the ilonggos and tangan-tangan in Lanao region.

Jatropha is a drought resistant perennial shrub or small tree that has an economic life of up to 35 years and can live for 50 years. It grows fast, with little or no need for maintenance and can reach a height of 3 to 8 meters.

It has a smooth gray bark which exudes whitish color, watery, latex when cut. The size of the leaves ranges from 6-15 cm in length and width. The leaves are green to pale, alternate to sub-opposite with 3 to 5 lobes. It sheds leaves in the dry season and rejuvenates during rainy season.

Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually slightly larger. It is pollinated by insects especially honey bees. The presence of a bee colony in a plantation would be an advantage. Two flowering peaks are often observed and occur during the wet season. Each inflorescence yields fruits.

After the seeds mature, 3 bi-valved cocci are formed. The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow about three months after flowering.

Site Requirements

Jatropha curcas is a tropical and subtropical plant. It grows almost anywhere even on sandy, gravelly and saline soils and does well on high temperatures.

Select a site with well-drained soils and good aeration. Jatropha is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content but the use of organic fertilizer would result to higher yield. Its water requirement is extremely low and can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves. It grows best when planted at the start of the rainy season.

Land Preparation

For commercial plantation, prepare the planting site by weeding, cultivation and digging holes, with spacing of 2 x 2 m apart or 3 x 2 m apart. For hedges, a distance of 1 x 1 m is recommended.

Preparation and Production of Planting Materials

1. Seeds (Sexual Propagation)

For reproduction purposes, harvest the fruits when already yellow to dark brown in color. Two to four months after flowering, seeds should be collected when capsules split open. Experience shows that drying seeds in direct sunlight has negative effect on viability as seeds for use as seedlings. The number of seeds per kilo ranges from 600-1600.

De-hull the dried seeds using a hollow wooden plank then winnow to separate the hulls from the seeds. The seeds are orthodox and should be dried to 5-7% moisture content and stored in airtight containers. The seeds can last to 1 year at room temperature. However, seeds that are oily cannot be stored for a long period.

For seedling production, select the seeds and treat them with water 8 hours before sowing. This is done to soften the seed coat for easy germination. Then put the seeds in the mixture of soil, sand and manure prepared in plastic bags with water. It is best to avoid removing or breaking the seed coat before sowing due to risk of abnormal seedlings.

To sow the seeds, pour water while pressing it lightly on the soaked soil. The first shoot is expected after 6 days. Water the plants twice a day for seven days and once for the succeeding days. After 2 months, the sapling is ready for plantation.

2. Stem Cuttings (Asexual Propagation)

Cuttings should be obtained from at least 8 month-old mature plant as much as possible 45-100 cm from the base of the stem. Use a saw or sharp bolo to cut it. The plant should be about 3-4 cm thick and has short internodes with many eyes. Cuttings serve as an immediate source of planting material that can produce seeds in less than 1-2 years.

3. Tissue Culture

Tissue Culture is a laboratory-based procedure, which uses artificial and sterilized propagation media. Tissues from various parts of the plant can be used in this procedure. This method allows choosing desirable characteristics of the mother stock and improving the variety of Jatropha.

Nursery Operation

One of the most important components of plantation development is nursery operation since it increases the rate of survival of the planting material. The nursery should be accessible to the planting site, preferably on non-sloping area and near the source of water.

Planting Jatropha

Transplant the 2 month-old seedling/cutting in a hole 2 x 2 meters apart, or any preferred spacing. Cover the hole with topsoil in a hill-up manner to avoid erosion. Water the plants up to two weeks after transplanting. For cuttings, the same procedure can be adapted provided that the stalk is transplanted within 5 days after cutting.

Fertilizer Application

To have higher yield and better quality seed, application of fertilizer is recommended. After applying, water the plants to avoid wilting. In highly rain-fed areas, fertilizers can be applied during the rainy days. Apply the fertilizer in a depth of 5-10 cm and 15-20 cm away from the plant. The use of organic fertilizer is highly recommended.

Harvesting

Seeds can usually be harvested 1 year after planting. Seeds for replanting can be gathered when the fruits are already yellow to dark brown. Seeds that are black and dry can already be used for oil extraction.

Economics

Initial investment for commercial plantation (2m x 2m) for 1 hectare- range from Php 32,119 to Php 52,770, the return of investment ranges from 0.90-1.8 while payback period is between 2nd to 3rd year. Potential yield ranges from 1.25-12.5 tons per year hectare depending on the site, climate and tending operations.

Potential for biodiesel

Based on the experience of India, 3 kilos of Jatropha seeds can produce 1 liter of crude Jatropha oil.

Blessing of Jatropha Nursery (Bahay Kubo) at Quezon Memorial Circle, Herbal Garden Diliman, Quezon City (16 December 2006)


For plant, plating materials, seedlings and seeds including technical assistance for household gardens and jatropha plantations, please contact:

Jatropha (Tuba-Tuba) Nursery
Herbal Garden, Quezon City Circle, Elliptical Road,
Diliman, Quezon City
Tel: (02) 911-7881, 435-5900 look for G.Santos or Raquel
Email: qcjatrophanursery@yahoo.com, gpsantosjr@gmail.com

source: www.jatrophabiodiesel.org


Last edited by Admin on Thu Apr 05, 2012 2:43 pm; edited 1 time in total
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